SharePoint Server 2010 provides two backup systems:
The entire server farm is backed up, including settings from the configuration database.
It supports both Full and differential backup.
The farm backup architecture in SharePoint Server 2010 starts a
Microsoft SQL Server backup of
1. Content DB
2. Service application DB
3. Writes configuration content to files
4. Search index files
A Web application backup includes:
Application pool name and application pool account
General Web application settings such as alerts and managed paths
Internet Information Services (IIS) binding information, such as the protocol type, host header, and port number
Changes to the Web.config file
(that have been made through the object model or Central Administration)
Search service application backup
SharePoint Server 2010 starts a SQL Server backup of the Search administration database, crawl databases, and property databases, and also backs up the index partition files in parallel.
he backup process is as follows:
- Master merges are paused to preserve the master index.
- A full database backup starts.
- The master index is backed up.
- Crawls are paused. The pause in crawling is much shorter than during a backup of Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 search, and does not last the full duration of the backup process.
- All shadow indexes are backed up.
- An incremental database backup starts.
- Crawls are resumed.
- Master merges are resumed.
More detail can be found here.